- IPA: /ɪŋ/, /ɪn/, /ən/
- (British) (southern North West England, northern West Midlands, Kent) IPA: /ɪŋɡ/
- (British) (Kent) IPA: /ɪŋk/, /ɪŋɡ/
- (US and Canada, sometimes) IPA: /in/, /iŋ/
- (America, Canada) homophones en (some dialects)
- (British, Australia) homophones en (some dialects)
- Used to form gerunds, a type of verbal nouns, from verbs.
- While forging the sword, something happened.; Trying to forge a sword, he has broken it.
- Used to form uncountable nouns from verbs denoting the act of doing something, an action.
- A making of a film; The forging of the sword took several hours of planning, preparation, and metalwork
- Used to form uncountable nouns from various parts of speech denoting materials or systems of objects considered collectively.
- Roofing is a material that covers a roof.
- Piping is a system of pipes considered collectively.
- French: -age
- German: Use zu + infinitive
- Italian: (first-conjugation gerund) -ando, (second- and third-conjugation gerund) -endo
- French: -age, -tion, -ment
- German: -ung
- Italian: -zione (-azione, -uzione), -mento, (informal) -aggio
- Russian: -а́ние
- Italian: -tura
Used to form present participles of verbs.
- Rolling stones gather no moss.
- You are making a mess.
- ante 2001 Brian Hall, “Beej's Guide to Network Programming”, “Using Internet Sockets”
- If you are connect()ing to a remote machine […] you can simply call connect(), it'll check to see if the socket is unworthy, and will bind() it to an unused local port if necessary.
- French: -ant
- German: -end
- Italian: (first-conjugation persent participle) -ante, (second- and third-conjugation present participle) -ente
- Portuguese: -ando, -endo, -indo
- Russian: -ающий
- Spanish: -ando (verbs ending in -ar), -iendo, -yendo (verbs ending in -er and -ir)
- Forming derivative nouns (originally masculine), with the sense ‘son of, belonging to’, as patronymics or diminutives. No longer productive in either sense.
- Browning, Channing, Ewing
- Having a specified quality, characteristic, or nature; of the kind of