Proper noun
  1. Alternative form of Qing
    • In China in the Ch'ing dynasty local government was organized on the same principle at all levels. All administrative units, from the province down to the chou (department) and the hsien (district), which are the focus of our study, were designed and created by the central government which financed their budgets, appointed their officials, and directed and supervised their activities. All local officials, including magistrates of the chou and hsien, were agents of the central government. There was no autonomy in the chou, the hsien, or in the towns and villages that constituted them. In fact, no formal government of any sort existed below the chou and hsien levels.
      It is strinking that the Ch'ing government should consider it necessary to place restriction on the performance of drama and to supervise it so closely. One explanation might be that some officials considered theathrical performances during religious celebrations irreverant. But this does not appear to explain the government's reserve adquately, and we should look more carefully at the restrictions and the reasons for them.

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