- Any of various predatory, cannibalistic insects of the order Mantodea that have a prayer-like stance.
- (regional, in Europe) A mantid of the species Mantis religiosa.
- A woman who preys on men (from the idea that female praying mantises eat males after sex).
- French: mante religieuse
- German: Gottesanbeterin
- Italian: mantide religiosa
- Portuguese: louva-a-deus, cavalinho-de-deus
- Russian: богомо́л
- Spanish: mantis religiosa, rezadora, campamocha (Mexico), cerbatana (Venezuela), mamboretá (Argentina), santateresa (Spain), tatadiós (Argentina), triquitesa (Western Spain, specifically Extremadura), usamico (Northwestern Argentina)