without
Pronunciation
  • (British, America) IPA: /wɪθˈaʊt/, /wɪðˈaʊt/
  • (Canada) IPA: /wɪθˈʌʊt/
Adverb

without (not comparable)

  1. (archaic or literary) Outside, externally. This is still used in the names of some civil parishes in England, e.g. St Cuthbert Without.
    • c.1600s, William Shakespeare, Macbeth
      Macbeth: There's blood upon your face
      Murderer: 'tis Banquo's then
      Macbeth: 'tis better thee without then he within.
    • 1900, Ernest Dowson, Benedictio Domini, lines 13-14
      Strange silence here: without, the sounding street
      Heralds the world's swift passage to the fire
    • 1904, Arthur Conan Doyle, The Adventure of the Golden Pince-Nez (Norton 2005, p.1100)
      I knew that someone had entered the house cautiously from without.
    • 2019 December 8, Supergirl (TV series), Supergirl (season 5), Crisis on Infinite Earths (Arrowverse):
      Brainiac: This earthquake is quite literally worldwide.
      Alex Danvers: But the seismic activity [isn't] coming from within the planet, it's coming from without.
  2. Lacking something.
    Being from a large, poor family, he learned to live without.
  3. (euphemism) In prostitution: without a condom being worn.
Preposition
  1. (archaic or literary) Outside of, beyond.
    Antonyms: within
    The snow was swirling without the cottage, but it was warm within.
    • Without the gate / Some drive the cars, and some the coursers rein.
    • Eternity, before the world and after, is without our reach.
    • 1967, George Harrison, Sgt._Pepper%27s_Lonely_Hearts_Club_Band
      Life goes on within you and without you.
  2. Not having, containing, characteristic of, etc.
    Antonyms: with
    It was a mistake to leave my house without a coat.
    • 1967, George Harrison, Sgt._Pepper%27s_Lonely_Hearts_Club_Band
      Life goes on within you and without you.
  3. Not doing or not having done something.
    He likes to eat everything without sharing.
    He shot without warning anyone.
    • 1883, Howard Pyle, The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood Chapter V
      But in the meantime Robin Hood and his band lived quietly in Sherwood Forest, without showing their faces abroad, for Robin knew that it would not be wise for him to be seen in the neighborhood of Nottingham, those in authority being very wroth with him.
    • 1892, Walter Besant, “Prologue: Who is Edmund Gray?”, in The Ivory Gate: A Novel, New York, N.Y.: Harper & Brothers, […], OCLC 16832619 ↗, page 16 ↗:
      Athelstan Arundel walked home […], foaming and raging. […] He walked the whole way, walking through crowds, and under the noses of dray-horses, carriage-horses, and cart-horses, without taking the least notice of them.
Synonyms Antonyms Translations Conjunction
  1. (archaic or dialect) Unless, except introducing a clause.
    • 1485, Sir Thomas Malory, [http://quod.lib.umich.edu/c/cme/MaloryWks2/1:17.3?rgn=div2;view=fulltext chapter iij], in Le Morte Darthur, book XV:
      And whanne this old man had sayd thus he came to one of tho knyghtes and sayd I haue lost alle that I haue sette in the / For thou hast rulyd the ageynste me as a warryour and vsed wrong werres with vayne glory more for the pleasyr of the world than to please me / therfor thow shalt be confounded withoute thow yelde me my tresour
    • 1884 December 9, Mark Twain [pseudonym; Samuel Langhorne Clemens], chapter I, in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: (Tom Sawyer’s Comrade) […], London: Chatto & Windus, […], OCLC 458431182 ↗, page 1 ↗:
      {smallcaps
    • 1913, DH Lawrence, Sons and Lovers, Penguin, 2006, p.264:
      ‘Why,’ he blurted, ‘because they say I've no right to come up like this—without we mean to marry—’



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