1. (rare) The study of the shape, size, and other features of the human skull.
    • 1864, C. G. Carus, "Some Remarks on the Construction of the Upper Jaw of the Skull of a Greenlander," Journal of the Anthropological Society of London, vol. 2, p. cxiv,
      In the first part of my Atlas on Cranioscopy, which appeared in Leipzig in 1843, I remarked that in the skull of a Greenlander, which I sketched, it was singular, that on this skull there was a decided separation between the upper jaw-bone and the intermaxillary bone, almost as in little children or in quadrupeds.
  2. (dated) Phrenology.
    • 1978, William J. Broad, "Lost in Thought," Science News, vol. 114, no. 22, p. 361,
      A theory that was totally wrong helped focus attention on the right questions. Some people called it phrenology. Its founder, Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) called it cranioscopy. . . . It held that the brain had specific areas of function and that mental and moral attributes of a person could be determined by examination of the cranium.

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