• (verb) IPA: /ɪnˈdjʊɹeɪt/
  • (adjective) IPA: /ɪnˈdjʊɹət/

indurate (indurates, present participle indurating; past and past participle indurated)

  1. To harden or to grow hard.
    • 1924, Herman Melville, Billy Budd, London: Constable & Co., Chapter 2,
      The ear, small and shapely, the arch of the foot, the curve in mouth and nostril, even the indurated hand dyed to the orange-tawny of the toucan's bill, a hand telling alike of the halyards and tar-bucket […] all this strangely indicated a lineage in direct contradiction to his lot.
    • 1970, Oliver Sacks, Migraine, London: Picador, 1995, Chapter 1, p. 15,
      The superficial temporal artery (or arteries) may become exquisitely tender to the touch and visibly indurated.
  2. To make callous or unfeeling.
  3. To inure; to strengthen; to make hardy or robust.
    • 1992, Saul Bellow, "Winter in Tuscany" in It All Adds Up: From the Dim Past to the Uncertain Future, New York: Viking, 1994, p. 257,
      The afternoon was not particularly warm: our noses and eyes were running; his were dry. He was evidently indurated against natural hardships.
Synonyms Adjective


  1. Hardened, obstinate, unfeeling, callous.
    The doctor removed a lot of indurate skin from his wound.
    • Now are they indurate and tough as Pharaoh, and will not bow unto any right way or order.

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