- Added to nouns and adjectives to form adjectives meaning “having the quality of”.
- mess + -y → messy
- mouse + -y → mousy
- blue + -y → bluey
- clay + -y → clayey
- Added to verbs to form adjectives meaning "inclined to".
- run + -y → runny
- stick + -y → sticky
- (form “having quality of” adjectives) -less
Forming diminutive nouns. Forming familiar names, pet names, nicknames and terms of endearment.
- French: -et, -ette, -in, -ine
- German: -chen, -lein, -i, -erl
- Italian: -etto, -etta, -ino, -ina
- Portuguese: -inho
- Russian: -ик
- Spanish: -ito, -ita, -iño, -iña, -ico, -uelo, illo, ino, -ucho, -ete, -eto, -uco, -iello, -ullo, -ejo
- Forming abstract nouns denoting a state, condition, or quality.
- modest + -y → modesty
- honest + -y → honesty
- -nym + -y → -nymy
- as in toponym + -y → toponymy
- -logue + -y → -logy
- as in analogue + -y → analogy
- Used in the name of some locations which end in -ia in Latin.
- French: -é
- German: -heit, -keit, -nis
- Italian: -à
- Portuguese: -ia, -idade
- Spanish: -ia, -tad, -dad, -ie, -io